To preserve and enhance the value of their creative works, graphic designers and visual artists might use intellectual property (IP) rights. With today’s massive amounts of digital content being shared online, there’s a good chance that someone will exploit your work without properly crediting you. You can better enforce your rights and maintain control over your creations by understanding graphic design intellectual property protections. IP can help you benefit from the work you sell to website designers, marketing professionals, retailers, and publishers, for example.  

In this article, we’ll explore popular categories of IP owned by visual artists, talk about works done for hire, and show you how to sell IP to others via licensing and non-fungible tokens in this article. We’ll also go over some basic fair use principles so you can be sure you’re not violating anyone’s rights.  


Copyrights and trademarks are the most prevalent types of intellectual property earned by graphic designers and visual artists. Copyright protections are derived from the creation of original work, whereas trademarks help to distinguish your business in the marketplace.   

  1. Copyrights  

A copyright gives creators the exclusive right to publish, reproduce, adapt, and distribute their original work to the public. Copyright protections are automatic (regardless of whether or not a work is registered) and continue for the creator’s lifetime plus 70 years. While designers and artists are automatically protected by copyright, there are some advantages to registering unique works with the United States Copyright Office. Registration informs others that you are prepared to defend your intellectual property rights if necessary. If you have to sue for infringement, you can get statutory damages and attorney’s fees if you register your work.  

Even if you abandon an idea, the IP rights to the unfinished design remain yours. This makes keeping accurate records of all creations (even if you don’t utilize them right now) highly vital, as they may have financial value in the future.

  1. Trademarks

In the marketplace, a trademark defines your brand, products, and services, allowing customers to distinguish yours from others. Trademarks can be applied to a variety of designs, including logos, taglines, and advertising jingles. You don’t have to register a trademark to get certain legal protections, just like you don’t have to register a copyright. However, it may be helpful to register a trademark so that it can be published in the USPTO database, alerting others to the fact that you are the sole owner of the property.


Understanding who owns the rights to work is one of the most difficult aspects of IP for many designers. Many of your projects may be for a client. The employer-employee relationship is one of the few instances in which the creator does not control the intellectual property rights to a product (the employer is the copyright holder). In a nutshell, if you are hired to develop designs or graphic works for a company, all of the work you produce belongs to the corporation.

Another point to consider is joint ownership. If you collaborate with multiple artists to complete a piece, each person’s contribution may be protected by copyright. If someone wanted to recreate the work, they’d have to seek permission from each of the designers involved.


Licensing is a means of transferring your intellectual property rights to a client to maximize the value of your creative works. You can grant clients licenses that allow them to utilize your work without paying royalties. You can also use controlled rights, which allow you to choose how your work can be used. Licensing your creative works is a good approach to earn from your IP in any case.

NFTs Offer a New Way to Profit from Your Creative Works

NFTs, or non-fungible tokens, are one-of-a-kind digital files used as a unit of blockchain currency. NFTs can be issued for any sort of digital material, including images, videos, audio, games, and so on. This new method of payment is sweeping the creative world.

When artists sell files as an NFT, they are paid for the first sale as well as any subsequent purchases. NFTs are similar to royalties in that they can provide a steady stream of income, but they have the added benefit of automatically tracking future sales on the blockchain without the need for third-party oversight.

NFTs allow creators to automatically collect royalties and track future sales using the blockchain’s verification system, which links all sales to the original work. As this type of currency becomes more popular, it could provide yet another avenue for visual artists to profit from their work.


Unless the use of intellectual property qualifies as “fair use,” authorization is required if you want to use someone else’s or if someone wants to use yours. Fair use allows you to use, modify, or create a derivative work based on someone else’s original work. Fair use, in general, refers to the use of another’s copyrighted material for educational, commentary, criticism, research, or reporting purposes. Whether copyrighted information has been fairly used is a difficult task that frequently necessitates the assistance of an attorney. When assessing whether the use of another’s copyrighted material is “fair,” courts consider four main factors:

  1. The usage’s purpose and character: Using copyrighted content for non-profit educational purposes could be considered fair use. Fair use is when someone else’s work is used for profit or a commercial purpose.
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work: Creative, rare, and unpublished work are less likely to be covered by fair use.
  3. The quantity of work used: Fair use may be defined as using an extractor reproducing a tiny piece of a protected work. However, copying a completely original work will very certainly not be recognized as fair use.
  4. The monetary impact of the use: It’s probably not fair use if your use of a protected work reduces the work’s market worth.


China’s Data Security Law (DSL) was officially ratified by China’s national legislature on June 10, 2021, over a year after its introduction, two versions, and three reviews. China’s Data Security Law (DSL), billed as the world’s most stringent data protection law, went into effect on September 1, 2021. With the introduction of the DSL, China has established a sophisticated, comprehensive data protection regime that focuses on the processing and protection of all forms of data while also laying strong foundations for China’s national security development and welfare. The most cutting-edge aspect of this legislation is the hierarchical classification of data based on its importance to Chinese national security, and categorization and protection will be carried out based on that importance. Of course, the DSL’s broad extraterritorial scope requires international organizations that collect any kind of data in or with China to follow the newly established rules. DSL is structured in such a way that it can work in tandem with China’s Cybersecurity Law 2017 and the Personal Information Protection Law 2021, to develop world-class cybersecurity and data protection regulations that will be pushed to become gold standards in their respective fields. DSL describes how companies must manage and handle their data, with the only focus on the processing operations of companies that collect and process data and have their main establishment within China’s territorial limitations, whether foreign or domestic. The DSL is projected to have a substantial influence on firms’ current data processing activities, as well as their business operations in China, because the new laws are stricter, with punitive penalties that include criminal culpability as well as heavy fines. This DSL, like every other legislation in China, is plain, hard-hitting, and has some heavy punishments for anyone who breaks it.  


China is the world’s second-largest economy, and it is moving toward a future infused with AI and a fully digital experience. When a government has such a lofty goal, it must ensure that suitable safeguards and regulations are in place, but China has failed to protect its citizens from cyber-attacks due to a lack of cybersecurity rules and data privacy laws. Incidents like the CSDN, in which China’s largest software programmers’ website was hacked, exposed the personal information of over 6 million users. Another incident occurred when Tianya, China’s largest online forum, was hacked, exposing the account information of more than 40 million users. Several famous websites, including 7k7k Games, 360buy, Duowan, and Dangdang, were all hacked, exposing millions of customers’ personal information and even exposing databases containing personal information. China’s reliance on technology is fast rising, and when a nation as large as China relies on technology, it is the government’s job to provide data security and secure residents’ information. China has developed DSL after taking all of these factors into account. One of the criticisms leveled at DSL is that it was rushed, as the entire law was only given two months to implement. However, DSL prioritizes China’s core interests of national security, public interest, and national economy, and any data processing, collection, storage, usage, disclosure, or publication relating to these subjects will be subject to DSL’s strict surveillance. DSL was released to the public for reviews and comments in July 2020 and April 2021, before its passage in July 2021.  

There were minimal changes, but there were a few enhancements in terms of the penalty for violation, which was increased. The DSL has been in effect since September 2021, and enterprises in China have been working hard to ensure compliance with the regulation.  


The DSL focuses completely or primarily on assuring safe and proper processing activities by enterprises operating in China, and the following are some of the DSL’s important highlights.  


DSL has a broad scope, but its primary goal is to safeguard citizens’ rights and interests, maintain a high degree of data security, design data usage regulations, and secure national security and sovereignty. DSL will operate as a security monitor for all data processing activities carried out by firms within China’s borders. The scope of the DSL also grants the state the right to exercise extraterritoriality only if it is discovered that any data relating to China has been processed outside of China and poses a threat to its national security. The concept of data, according to DSL, includes any type of cyber information created electronically, in hard copies, or other formats. Data processing, on the other hand, is a broad term that encompasses all actions such as data collection, usage, storage, transmission, publishing, and disclosure, according to the DSL. Even though the DSL has defined Data, Data Processing, and National Core Data, it has left the enormous work of defining Important Data to the native regulators in each sector.  


With DSL, the world’s first data classification system was introduced. The data will be classified based on the level of threat or damage it poses to China’s national security, economy, and public interest in the event of a data breach. If the data is near to or comes within the scope of these three categories, data management, processing activities, and data protection must be carried out with extreme caution, as the requirements will be stricter and the consequences will be harsher in the event of any breach. The “National Core Data” and “Important Data” categories of data are where these tight requirements can be found the most.  

National Core Data  

National core data is any data that is directly or indirectly related to national security, national economy, or the public interest, and it is subject to stronger laws.  

Important Information  

This notion was first proposed in Cybersecurity Law and has since been incorporated into DSL. Companies must take the necessary steps to hire a reasonable person and set up a data protection department to conduct periodic risk assessments and report the results to the competent authorities.  

Cross-border transfers  

The cross-border transmission of data affects every country, not just China. The cross-border transfers method and management were made stricter and classified into multiple standards with the deployment of DSL. The data acquired within China by Critical Information Infrastructure Operators – CIIOs – is governed by the CSL 2017 and must be stored within China’s territorial limitations in the event of a cross-border transfer of significant data. When the time comes for cross-border transfer, the Cyberspace Administration of China – CAC and the State Council-appointed relevant departments must complete a prior security assessment. DSL further forbids the transfer of any data held in China with law enforcement or judicial officials outside of China without the Chinese government’s prior authorization. If data is transferred without permission, it can result in the suspension of business licenses or the imposition of severe penalties. Because they must comply with the EU GDPR, this DSL law has produced a schism among enterprises based in China that provide services to data subjects in the European Union. However, before transmitting any data outside of China, DSL requires such enterprises to acquire prior consent from the relevant Chinese government.  


Suspension of company licenses, criminal penalties, fines up to 10 RMB million, and if any individual is found guilty of any form of a data breach, he or she will be punished up to 10 RMB million in addition to criminal charges. If any specific responsibilities are not met, a warning may be issued together with an order to fix the breach within a certain time frame, or a fine of between RMB 50,000 and RMB 75,000 may be applied.  


In the not-too-distant future, the true impact of DSL will be revealed. Because the law was only passed a few months ago, it is too early to predict how it would affect businesses. However, one thing is certain: DSL will almost certainly have a greater impact on domestic IT giants than on international enterprises, and with the rigorous cross-border transfer laws, this will take more time and potentially harm businesses in the long term. DSL is a new addition to the world’s list of data protection laws, and it is indeed complex in character and punitive in terms of requirements toward its native enterprises, all in the name of protecting national security and promoting openness.  



Cryptocurrency has piqued curiosity around the world, with some calling it “the future of money.” Even though cryptocurrencies cannot be used in the same way as traditional money at the current moment, they are kept as investments in the hopes that their value will rise as adoption grows. As a result, financial institutions frequently refer to it as a “crypto-asset.” Cryptocurrency has its financial market, with companies like Facebook and Samsung announcing plans to build their versions of cryptocurrency to participate in it.

Many people have been intrigued by this ground-breaking technology since the triumph of ‘BITCOIN,’ the world’s most popular cryptocurrency. Nike has secured a trademark for their cryptocurrency, nicknamed “crypto sneakers,” in the United States.

Blockchain technology makes bitcoin transactions easier by allowing them to be recorded in a secure, protected ledger utilizing a networked database structure protected by hashing power. Permanent, irrevocable, and anonymous transactions avoid the use of middlemen while being transparent and unaffected. Bitcoin transactions are made easier by blockchain technology, which allows them to be recorded in a secure, protected ledger using a networked database structure protected by hashing power. Transactions that are permanent, irreversible, and anonymous prevent the use of middlemen while being transparent and unaffected. Cryptocurrencies were established to replace some of the existing currencies and to do similar financial duties without the need for government approval or legal recognition. They are usually issued by a virtual corporation or a capital-raising entity. A virtual organization is represented by computer code and can be run on a blockchain or distributed ledger.


Cryptocurrency is a sort of virtual currency that combines cryptography for security and a decentralized ledger to record transactions. Unlike a physical note or coin issued by the government, it only exists in digital form. It is represented by a computer code that can be modified to include a wide range of rights and responsibilities to perform tasks other than serving as a payment or exchange medium. It can be used to provide digital access to a product, app, or service, as well as to reflect real-world asset interests.

Furthermore, unlike traditional currencies, Bitcoin is not created or distributed by a central authority. Instead, it’s a network of computers that performs computations while also maintaining a digital record of transactions. As a result, the freshly created currency receives a reward.

The first step forward in the cryptocurrency era was the introduction of Bitcoin, which was first discussed in a white paper in 2008 and then realized in 2009. Since then, there have been nearly 2500 cryptocurrencies. A few well-known cryptocurrencies with distinct trademarks are Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, Zcash, Dash, and Monero.


In 2016, BitFlyer, Inc. applied for a trademark to register the term “BITCOIN” for use as “computer programs used in the field of electronic commerce transactions; computer programs; electronic machines and apparatus; telecommunication machines and apparatus,” but the USPTO declined the application. According to the USPTO, the word was solely descriptive of the subject matter and qualities of the applicant’s products. In 2018, the USPTO refused a trademark application for the word BITCOIN, finding that the mark was merely descriptive of the subject matter and a feature of the applicant’s services.

In addition, the mark ‘OMNICOIN’ was registered in the United States in Class 36 for “cryptocurrency, namely, providing a virtual currency for use by members of an online community via a global computer network; cryptocurrency, namely, a peer-to-peer digital currency, incorporating cryptographic protocols, operating over the internet, and used as a method of payment for goods and services; cryptocurrency, namely, a peer-to-peer digital currency, incorporating cryptographic protocols According to Class 36, “cryptocurrency is essentially a peer-to-peer digital currency that combines cryptographic protocols, runs via the internet, and is used as a form of payment for products and services.”

In June 2020, the Spanish Patents and Trademark Office, like the UK, granted Trademark Protection to M4046141, a Bitcoin salesperson involved in buying and selling bitcoin. Because Bitcoin and Blockchain are open-source technology that anybody can use to supply cryptocurrency services, such a grant of Trademark Rights for the name “BITCOIN” has been criticized around the world.

The United States is expected to be the first jurisdiction to see an increase in case law relating to trademark law and cryptocurrencies, especially since it began allowing bitcoin names to be registered.

In Alibaba Group Holding Ltd vs. Alibabacoin Foundation, the plaintiff sought a preliminary injunction against the defendants for trademark infringement as a new cryptocurrency, Alibabacoin. They requested an injunction prohibiting the use of the term Alibaba Coin to refer to their cryptocurrency until the litigation was settled.

The US District Court for the Southern District of New York granted the preliminary injunction, and the defendants’ motion to dismiss the complaint was denied. Alibaba had plainly said that it would never engage in the cryptocurrency industry and, as a result, had lost its right to use its cryptocurrency trademark, according to one of the defendants’ primary arguments. After determining that Alibaba had established a likelihood of success on the merits of its trademark infringement claim, the Court dismissed this argument, noting that “accepting this view of abandonment would render American trademark law largely ineffective,” and granted Alibaba a preliminary injunction. The defendants also used the mark “in combination with their online business activities,” indicating that the mark was utilized in commerce as a good or service, according to the Court.

In Telegram Messenger Inc. vs. Lantah LLC, the US District Court for the Northern District of California granted a preliminary injunction prohibiting the defendant from using the term “Gram” for its cryptocurrency brand because it was confusingly similar to the plaintiff’s trademark “Gram,” which was a pending registration at the USPTO for “financial services, namely, providing a virtual currency for use by members of an online co-op.”

In the case of West vs. McEnery, the Southern District Court of New York issued a default judgment in favor of Kanye West, ordering the defendants to stop using the name “Coinye West” as a trademark for their cryptocurrency enterprise.

Cryptocurrency has taken on many different shapes as a result of its desire to evolve. Since the launch of bitcoins, various variations have emerged in the form of ‘alt-coins,’ which are varying degrees of alternatives that can take on a variety of other forms. The world of cryptocurrency is becoming substantially more challenging with next-generation blockchains like Neo and Ethereum. Because bitcoin is so diverse and difficult to govern, no single person or organization can claim ownership or responsibility for it; as a result, community-based blockchains appear to have little prospect of preserving intellectual property rights (IPRs).


Failure to ascribe trademark ownership could result in a host of issues arising from the incorrect implementation of such technology. Consider the example of a normal internet user who is curious about cryptocurrencies and wants to buy some. He decides to buy bitcoins from a person who is actively promoting the currency’s sale while also acting as a fraudulent investor after considering his options. The proprietor cannot prevent anyone acting in such a fraudulent capacity from harming the cryptocurrency brand’s image because the aforementioned cryptocurrency is not held and protected under trademark law.

If the client fails to prevent the foregoing behavior, he or she may face unjustified difficulties due to a lack of available remedies. Furthermore, terminology like ‘Bitcoin’ and ‘Blockchain’ has become increasingly prominent, making it easy to use similar terms for other goods or services without breaking the law. As a result, it’s vital to figure out how to protect cryptocurrencies so that clients aren’t fooled by various cryptocurrency providers and the reputations of recognized providers aren’t destroyed.

As a result, assigning collaborative authorship to owners in the form of ‘collective marks’ is a viable alternative to a sole proprietorship in the context of such technologies. The same would protect consumers from deceit while also resolving the decentralized control challenge. However, this is not a problem-free method because determining true trademark ownership might be difficult.


In recent years, cryptocurrency has increased in popularity, allowing consumers to receive and send payments that are not limited to a single currency. Such technology has the potential to disrupt and revolutionize the way we do business. However, a plethora of regulatory and legal challenges around bitcoin continue to plague the world as a whole.

Many heavyweights, like Facebook, Samsung, and Nike, are racing to join the cryptocurrency race to supply bitcoin outlets. As a result, as previously indicated, technological improvements in the field of cryptocurrencies have created new challenges and difficulties that must be addressed through regulatory and legislative changes.

To begin with, cryptocurrencies, as well as the other varieties of cryptocurrencies that may emerge, must be assigned a place in the Nice Classification. As a result, to establish new jurisprudence, recognition must take the form of law. Additionally, while a legal framework in the targeted member state is being developed, Bitcoin should seek Trademark Protection in countries that allow it to strengthen its claim over the use of a certain mark, work, or logo. Finally, amending trademark laws may look ambitious in countries where bitcoin has been outright banned due to its harmful effects on morals and public policy (for example, India). Such countries will not give protection against third-party deception and misrepresentation. As a result, any technology must endure the test of time before we can decide the appropriate course of action for dealing with the hazards posed by bitcoin use.



When the Soviet Union’s Sputnik-I satellite launched into space in 1957, it opened up a world of new possibilities for mankind on the ground. Humans had discovered a way to escape the planet, despite past views and statements by several authorities. When Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin entered space and orbited the earth in the first manned space mission ever, the dream of a human in space was also realized quickly. Man’s voyages beyond the globe were thrilling, but they also meant that mankind had discovered a new dimension, a new resource to plunder.  

There was a clear need for space laws to prohibit any such exploitation or hazardous behaviors associated with space. A few bodies have been established, laws have been adopted, and policies have been established to regulate human activity in space over time. In the space sector, different countries have made varying development. This article will discuss various countries’ space laws and how they have evolved in comparison to others.  

The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is tasked with overseeing  

Given the advancements in the space sector in the United States and the Soviet Union, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) was founded in 1958. The UNOOSA collaborates with all 193 UN members to ensure that there is a peaceful sharing of information about space between countries. The body’s creation is also required due to the concerns of developing countries. Many developed countries believe that space exploration and space materials can benefit them economically and that these resources should be allocated equitably among developed countries so that all countries on the planet are on the same track. UNOOSA took on a few initiatives and projects around the turn of the twenty-first century to fulfill its mandate of developing a broad and peaceful international association in space.  

The International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG) was established in 2005 to promote similarity, interoperability, and simplicity among all satellite navigation systems, particularly for agricultural countries. The UN-SPIDER initiative was created the next year to enable developing countries a chance to use space-based innovations for disaster, board, and crisis response. The organization is also in charge of upholding international treaties and accords relating to space law. The organization has done a good job of raising awareness through online and offline events.  


a. The legal framework in the United States  

The United States was one of the first countries to begin developing a space legal framework, and it continues to lead the world in this area. The United States has the most powerful and clear public space law and administrative system of any country when it comes to space exercises. Several countries have modeled their laws after those of the US. In addition, the government has signed four international space accords. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established NASA and demonstrated to the rest of the world that the United States is prepared to develop and research space exploration and collect resources from space.  

Commercial space launch capabilities are critical to the US for a variety of reasons. One of the six aims of the 2010 National Space Policy is to “ignite competitive domestic enterprises to engage in global markets and enhance space launch development.” Five goals were established in the 2013 National Space Transportation Policy, including promoting and maintaining a dynamic, healthy, and efficient domestic space transportation industrial base, as well as encouraging and facilitating the US commercial space transportation industry to increase its robustness and cost-effectiveness.

To the greatest extent possible, the 2013 Policy instructs agencies to purchase and use US commercial space transportation capabilities and services, as well as to facilitate various US commercial providers of space transportation services across a range of launch vehicle classes. The US has done so in a variety of ways, notably through NASA’s utilization of Space Act Agreements. Because commercial space launch capabilities are so vital, they are subject to a complex statutory and regulatory framework.

The Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act was signed into law by the United States in 2015. (the Act). The Act, among other things, contains provisions relating to mining procedures on divine bodies such as the Moon and space rocks. According to the Act, the President will “promote commercial inquiry into and commercial recovery of space assets by US residents” through federal offices.

Furthermore, a US resident engaged in the commercial recovery of a space rock or space asset will be eligible for any space rock asset or space asset obtained, including the right to have, own, transport, use, and sell, as per applicable law, including the US’s global commitments.’ The Act expressly authorizes US citizens to “participate in a commercial inquiry for and commercial recovery of space assets, as per the United States’ international responsibilities, and subject to permission and administration by the Federal Government.”

Because of its long history of space study and achievement in space travel, the United States has one of the most comprehensive legal systems in the world. Another significant achievement in this subject is the successful commercialization of space exploration by the United States. The country attempted to privatize land remote sensing in the past, but it did not work out. In terms of legal frameworks, the country has served as a model for others to follow, and it continues to do so.

b. The legal framework for space in the United Kingdom

Another country that has done well in the field of space and has a decent legal structure for it in the United Kingdom. Even though the government has not been as successful as others in carrying out its space activities, its legal regulations have performed admirably and are well-framed. The United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA), which was founded in 2010, is the agency in charge of space affairs in the UK. The British National Space Centre was superseded by the agency. The English government’s space activities are described by two legal systems. The Outer Space Act of 1986, which is an instant application of international standards in English law, was prompted by international agreements in which the United Kingdom participated.

The 1986 Act paves the way for the United Kingdom to regulate the use of outer space and the activities carried out there by organizations or individuals under its jurisdiction. As a result, this legislation is prompted by the points and standards established in the United Nations’ space agreements, similar to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

The Outer Space Act is extremely important to the United Kingdom because it allows the country to conduct its activities by international law. It also creates a safety net around general well-being and addresses the question of the UK government’s liability for injury. Aside from that, it establishes a standard that must be followed. You should apply for an OSA license if you need to dispatch or work a space piece, or if you need to complete any activity in space.

The convention established the Traffic Signal Framework (TLS): by emitting a specified tone – red, golden, or green – the individual or organization asking for the license will be able to determine the possibility of their application being approved. When the license is valid, the licensee must adhere to several obligations, including refraining from sullying space, attempting to avoid interfering with other people’s space activities, avoiding any breach of the UK’s international commitments, and safeguarding the public safety of the United Kingdom as well as protecting themselves from outsider liabilities.

The Space Industry Act of 2018 establishes procedures for space and suborbital operations, as well as for related reasons. It further specifies that all offenses that would be an offense in the ward (the United Kingdom) will be an offense in any space developed from this country. This is similar to the arrangements in place for boats and planes.

The act also covers requirements such as spaceflight authorization, security requirements, and health and safety responsibilities, which have become increasingly important in the age of SpaceX and Virgin Galactic, where space is no longer an inaccessible frontier, but one poised to be popularised in ways never seen before.

The Act is necessary for the Government’s Mechanical System, which entails transforming the UK’s small satellite manufacturing industry into a global hub for satellite activity and innovation – with access to space. They ensure that numerous extraordinarily brilliant positions will be created, as well as billions of dollars in economic limits. The development of small satellite capacity and moderateness indicates that a growing business sector for low-cost private dispatch offices is emerging, and it is hoped that the Space Business Act would foster the events and speculation required for the UK’s first spaceport.

c. Indian space legislation

India’s space agency, ISRO, is one of the largest in the world, yet it lacks a well-defined legislative framework. India is a signatory to five international treaties, including the Moon Treaty of 1979.

India has several policies in place that are observed throughout space exploration activities on a national level. ISRO’s technology policy is a well-defined and methodical approach for exchanging knowledge about improvements and items developed by Indian Space Places to support Indian ventures and their application in the commercial sphere connected to various space undertakings. The Remote Sensing Data Policy of 2011 applies to all acts related to getting, disseminating, and executing far-flung detecting information in the context of formative operations, as defined within the scope of the method.

The approach’s purpose is to encourage clients to share high-value information that is needed for formative activities. Furthermore, the Satellite Communication Act of 1997 was adopted to regulate and enhance satellite communications. ISRO has approved the formation of IN-SPACe, which is intended to bring commercial businesses into the space industry and raise awareness about space activities. It is important to note that, in addition to IN-SPACe, the government has established two separate organizations, namely New Space India Limited (NSIL) and Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL), to promote the development of Indian space enterprises and advance space exercises, NSIL capacities under DoS regulatory control, and means to industrially use ISRO and other DoS constituent units’ innovative work. ACL, on the other hand, has comparable capabilities.

The public was given access to the draught Space Activities Bill in 2017, although it has yet to become operational law. Articles 51 and 253 of the Indian Constitution call for the promotion of world peace, and any space legislation proposed by the Indian government must adhere to these two principles. India requires a strong legal framework to join the elite organizations at the top.

CONCLUDING…The article discussed the space legal framework in the United States, the United Kingdom, and India, three of the world’s most powerful democracies. The US has a fairly balanced and well-developed legal system for space activities, whereas the UK, despite having a competent legal framework for outer space activities, nonetheless falls short in several respects, which is partly because it lags behind other major countries’ space agencies. India, on the other hand, is considered distinct from both the United Kingdom and the United States because of its lack of developed legal workarounds for space activities.



The UK Government announced its intention to introduce new legislation to regulate the security of consumer smart devices, including phones, televisions, speakers, toys, wearables, doorbells, and other consumer internet of things (IoT) devices, on April 21, 2021, in response to last year’s call for views on consumer smart device cybersecurity. Although the draught legislation has not yet been published, the first statement was made to provide a transition period for enterprises working in the sector of smart devices to convert to compliance. The rule would also require smart device and Internet of Things (“IoT”) businesses to ensure that no faulty or insecure products are available in the UK’s jurisdiction. This is a significant step in the United Kingdom’s post-Brexit data protection regime, as well as the Department of Digital Media, Culture, and Sports’ Code of Practice for Consumer IoT Security.  

The introduction of the UK law ushers in a new era of digital security, taking into account the major security risks that consumers may face as the number of items connected to the Internet of Things grows. According to some estimates, there will be 75 billion internet-connected devices worldwide by 2025, with 10-15 devices per UK household. Data protection by design and default is required by the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). As a result, the UK government’s law would facilitate this part of legislation by ensuring a minimal level of consumer security.  

What are smart devices and IoT?  

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a critical digital idea that has emerged through time with the introduction of smart gadgets. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a potentially revolutionary technology with similar disruptive properties to Blockchain in that it promises a tremendous opportunity for data analysis and distribution via sophisticated device connections. The use of a huge network system would allow for widespread synchronization and the completion of activities in less time. Smartwatches and smart speakers, such as Google’s Nest and Amazon’s Alexa, are good examples of IoT-based smart products. This is why the UK is attempting to streamline its progress by drafting a consistent regulation. In essence, the internet of things (IoT) is a broad word that refers to a group of networks linked by the internet and each of which is embedded in technology. With the IoT, different objects that we see daily, such as home devices, vehicles, manufacturing devices, light bulbs, computers, and tech systems, can be connected via the internet. Machine to machine (M2M) technology, which allows machines of the same type to communicate, and mobile connections, where data can be exchanged via Internet Protocol networks, are examples of the IOT’s top technicalities.  

IoT and smart devices are becoming increasingly important.  

The IoT application has grown in popularity over time, aided by widespread internet access and increased network connectivity. Wi-Fi and broadband access are considerably more commonly available now, allowing for more efficient data transmission management. It is expected that the number of internet users would increase exponentially, accelerating the expansion of smart device applications. Sensor technology advancements will rocket growth since lower prices will make it affordable to deploy in any remote area and pre-installed in any device. The increasing sector of smartphone devices, which has a strong base of 5.6 billion individuals connected to smartphone ownership in 2019-20, makes one of the most significant contributions. Within the next five years, this is expected to expand by a billion units. According to IDC, the Internet of Things sector would be worth more than $1.7 trillion in 2015, with a 15 percent increase by 2025.  

What are the issues and challenges associated with the use of IoT-smart devices?  

The applicability of IoT Smart devices, like any other technology, comes with its own set of obstacles and issues. The UK legislation is being used to implement data security for individuals in addressing these issues. With the rapid growth of smart technologies, there will be greater challenges in understanding and operating these devices. As a result, such customers would be vulnerable to cyber-attacks and data mismanagement. For example, Google’s smart home system NEST was one of the first household systems to experience serious issues with its thermostats. As the final product of smart devices has a complex system of operators, this raises the issue of imposition of liability in terms of service default. A variety of players, including the ISP, the hardware operator, and a manufacturing business, are in charge of the smart devices. This raises significant concerns about how customers, or regulatory agencies, can figure out what went wrong, who is responsible, and how to fix it.  

The sheer volume of data that smart device operators will aggregate and collect presents a significant problem in terms of data privacy and security. Strong data protection regulations have been enforced in the EU-UK region with the adoption of the GDPR, but the risk remains, depending on the applicability of strong legislation in the area. Complying with privacy and data protection standards such as informed consent and data minimization is going to become increasingly difficult. Data analysis reveals a slew of security flaws in smart gadgets and IoT-enabled equipment that hackers can exploit. The most well-known example was the situation in the United States, where several occurrences of Alexa being hacked and accessed by the hacker’s receiving Internet Protocol were documented. In 2015, Samsung was widely chastised for exploiting its voice-activated software to capture and distribute private household conversations with a third party. “Samsung… could record vocal commands and the text that goes with them.” One of the most important hazards posed by smart device operators is their ability to communicate with one another and transfer data independently to an external party (such as a device manufacturer). With these problems, determining when and how processing occurs becomes extremely difficult, and data subjects’ capacity to exercise their data privacy and protection rights may be severely hampered. According to a survey conducted by cybersecurity firms, about 80% of smart gadgets have severe vulnerabilities that may be easily hacked and accessed by malicious individuals. Not only would this expose consumers to major data scams, but it also had the potential to compromise sensitive personal data.  


Manufacturers would be required to meet additional security requirements for any smart device product distributed in the UK under the proposed legislation governing smart devices. The draught legislation’s goal is to create standard security protocols that can endure huge changes in the industry while yet allowing for innovation. The UK government announced a Code of Practice for IoT security in October 2018, to provide a harmonized set of principles for makers of IoT devices to ensure product security for consumers who are often unaware of potential cybersecurity risks when using smart products. The Department for Digital, Culture, Media, and Sport (DCMS) undertook a consultation in May 2019 on prospective regulatory recommendations in this area, believing that the self-regulatory rules did not go far enough to safeguard consumer security.  

The UK government issued its draught regulations governing smart gadgets and other IoT-related products on April 21, 2021. Any network-connected devices (i.e., those connected via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, data cable, etc.) and their associated services that are made available principally to consumers in the UK would be affected by the legislation. Some devices, such as laptops, tablets without a cellular connection, and second-hand electronics, are specifically excluded from the law’s scope. Manufacturers, importers, and distributors are all “relevant economic actors” involved in the transmission of smart gadgets to UK customers, according to the legislation’s definition.  

The law has made it mandatory to follow three important criteria, which were previously reproduced in the Code of Practice for Consumer IoT Security and significant clauses in the standard EN 303 645:  

  1. Prohibiting the use of universal default passwords, which are usually simple to guess and are preinstalled in factory reset mode when the device is turned on.  
  2. Sending security updates on time and assuring customers that a product would receive security updates for a certain period. The legislation, on the other hand, is likely to enable the UK government to update security requirements through secondary legislation to keep up with technology and threat advances.  
  3. Manufacturers will be required to make a public declaration of conformity available. They would be required to take action and cooperate with law enforcement agencies if the smart device did not comply with the legislation. Operators with a business headquarters outside the UK will be represented in the UK by their authorities, who will be responsible for ensuring compliance with the proposed legislation.  
  4. Smart device distributors in the UK, such as wholesalers and retailers, are expected to be obliged to ensure that the makers have published a declaration of conformity and to assist with any enforcement authorities.  

The enforcement authority will have the capacity to investigate and take action in the event of non-compliance, according to the proposed law. However, no clear policy has been established as to which entity will be in charge of enforcement and what powers it would have.  

WRAP-UP  The UK government intends to implement the proposed legislation “as soon as parliamentary time allows,” which will be postponed until the end of 2021 because of the disruption created by the covid epidemic. While such legislation will enhance data protection regulation following Brexit, the question of whether there is a need for separate legislation for every area of technology remains. This would prompt a discussion about the need for uniform data protection and efficacy legislation. Specific laws, such as this one, should be thorough in enacting or revamping consumer law to embrace more flexible approaches to protecting individuals’ rights.